Building Research Establishment, responsible for a wide variety of structural
and architectural research focused on current problems and design procedures
including, for instance, studies of structural interactions in bridges and
framed buildings and structural responses to normal, occasional, and accidental
on structural aspects of building conservation and restoration, especially of
major historic buildings in seismic areas;
Visiting Professor of architecture, structures, and structural conservation at
University College, London, University of Leeds, and Catholic University of
(in parallel with the above):
historical researches (partly in association with Harvard and Carnegie-Melon
Universities) into the history of architecture and construction.
publications of the structural and architectural researches referred to above
and related contributions to guidance documents, monographs (such as Planning
and design of tall buildings, vol. CL: Tall building criteria and loading,
American Society of Civil Engineers, 1980), etc.
numerous papers on aspects of the history of architecture and construction
“Structural theory and design before 1742”, Architectural Review, vol. CXLIII, 1968, 303-310.
“Brunelleschi’s dome of S.Maria del Fiore and some related structures”, Transactions
of the Newcomen Society, vol. XLII, 1969-70, 107-126.
“Intuition and the springs of structural invention”, VIA
(Graduate School of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania), vol. 2, 1973,
“Brunelleschi’s dome”, Architectural
Review, vol. CLXII, 1977, 156-166, 320.
“The first and second churches of San Marco reconsidered”, Antiquaries
Journal, vol. LXXI, 1991, 123-137.
“Sinan’s Suleymaniye Mosque and Hagia Sophia”, Public
Assembly structures from antiquity to the present, Mimar Sinan University,
Istanbul, 1993, 53-62.
“The structural conservation of Hagia Sophia”, Structural
repair and maintenance of historical buildings III, Southampton and Boston,
“The springs of invention revisited”, Structural Engineer, vol.73, 1995, 392-99.
“Structural analysis, structural understanding, and historical interpretation”,
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 56, 1997,
“The dome of St Peters: structural aspects of its design and construction and
inquiries into its stability”, AA files, no. 39, 1999, 21-39.
“Domes: a structural overview”, Domes 2000, Society of Architectural Historians annual symposium,
“Reflections on the related histories of construction and design”, 1st
International Congress on Construction History, 2003, vol.1, 49-60.
books and monographs:
Developments in structural form, Allen
Lane and MIT Press, 1975, Penguin and MIT Press, 1982.
The seventeenth century (Cambridge
introduction to the history of art), Cambridge University Press, 1981 (with M F
Building construction under seismic
conditions in the Balkan region, 6: Repair and strengthening of historical
monuments and buildings in urban nuclei, UNIDO, Vienna, 1984.
Hagia Sophia - architecture, structure and
liturgy of Justinian's Great Church,
Thames and Hudson, 1988.
Developments in structural form,
extensively revised and expanded 2nd edition, Architectural Press, 1998.
in architecture: history, design and
innovation (Variorum Collected
Studies Series), Ashgate, 1999.
numerous contributions to other books including:
“Building and architecture”, in A history of technology VII: The twentieth century, Oxford
University Press, 1978, 930-957.
“Structural design, elements, systems and processes”, Macmillan
Encylopedia of Architecture and Technological Change, 1979, 164-197.
“The Eddystone Lighthouse”, in John
Smeaton FRS, Thomas Telford, 1981, 83-102.
“Rome and the Roman Empire”, “The Byzantine Empire”, etc. in Sir
Banister Fletcher’s A History of Architecture, 19th edition., Butterworths,
1987, 159-163, 169-171, 176-178, 180-186, 210-306. (also in 20th edition,
Architectural Press, 1996)
“Stability concepts from the Renaissance to today”, in Stable-unstable?,
Leuven University Press, 1988, 65-78.
der Konstruktion auf die Form von Kuppeln und Gewolben” in Zur
Geschite des Konstruierens, DVA, Stuttgart, 1989, 211-223.
“Characteristics and assessment of old masonry structures”, in Structural
conservation of stone masonry, ICCROM, Rome, 1990, 63-76.
“Materials and structure” in The
Palace of the Sun: the Louvre of Louis XIV, Pennsylvania State University
Press, 1993, 65-74 (in association with R W Berger).
problem: the construction of masonry and concrete domes” in Architettura
e tecnologia, Nuova Argos, 2002, 15-27.